Templar Magna Carta and the Rule of Law:
Knights Templar Law-Givers of the First Civil Rights Charter
Less than 50 years before the Magna Carta, the basis for English Common Law itself was initially developed by substantial legal reforms implemented by King Henry II (1133-1189 AD), of the Templar dynastic House of Anjou.  These sweeping reforms of the Royal Court system and its legal frameworks, backed by Knights Templar support, resulted in the very foundations of the Common Law system of jurisprudence.
When King Richard the Lionheart died in 1199 AD, he was succeeded by his brother King John (1166-1216 AD), who imposed excessive taxation on the English nobility, and confiscated and sold property of the Roman Catholic Church. These and other arbitrary abuses of power were mostly driven by the need to pay for failed foreign wars. By 1214 AD, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Stephen Langton, called on the Nobles to demand a charter of liberties from the King of England.
This resulted in the first time in history that a statutory law was imposed upon a monarch backed by armed force, causing the landmark Magna Carta to be enacted in 1215 AD. Written in Roman Latin, its full title was Magna Carta Libertatum, literally the “Great Charter of Liberties”.
Historians generally identify the Magna Carta as an “Angevin” charter, specifically meaning of the Royal House of Anjou, the line of titled Counts of Anjou dating back to 870 AD. The 13th century Nobles of the House of Anjou, who were involved in creating the Magna Carta, dynastically descended directly from Count Fulk of Anjou, King of Jerusalem. King Fulk was one of the first Noble Patrons backing the first two Grand Masters of the Templar Order since its establishment in 1118 AD , and essentially served as the 10th founding Knight Templar from 1120 AD .
The rebellious Nobles, who were direct signatories to the Magna Carta, are typically referred to in history books only generically as “Barons”. However, of those 25 English noblemen, actually 7 held the much higher title of Earl (Count), and 3 were heirs to an Earldom.
Significantly, 3 of the signatories to the charter were Nobles of Hereford, a major stronghold of Knights Templar loyalists, and the region of the first Templar headquarters Commandery at Garway. More importantly, one of the key parties of great influence among all the Nobles was Brother Aymeric, the Master (Prior) of the Knights Templar for England.
The occasional references in history books to the Magna Carta being “forced” upon King John rarely emphasize the actual level of organized armed military force that was necessarily involved, in order to impose such restrictions upon a ruling monarch. The military nature of this knightly force was so substantial, that it is recorded in history as the “First Barons’ War” (1215-1217 AD).
The primary and dominant organized armed force of militia in England, which was independent from the Crown at that time, was none other than the Knights Templar, the chivalric Order of the Temple of Solomon.
The rebellion of Nobles was led by Robert Fitzwalter, a Templar Knight who was given the chivalric title of office “Marshal of the Army of God and Holy Church” specifically for the mission of establishing the Magna Carta. Further confirming that Fitzwalter was a Templar is the fact that he later fought in the Fifth Crusade. 
When King John persisted in refusing the demands of the Nobles, in January 1215 AD Fitzwalter together with a group of Knights of nobility, all suited in full Templar battle armour with formal regalia of the Order of the Temple of Solomon, held a key meeting with the King at Temple Church, the major headquarters Commandery of the Templar Order in London.  
Leading legal scholars in the Justice system of the United Kingdom are well aware that “many of the key moments in the two years leading up to the sealing of the Charter took place [in Temple Church]”. For this reason, Barristers (higher ranking lawyers) of the English legal system identify Temple Church as “the cradle of the Common Law.” 
The exercise of force to establish Magna Carta culminated in the breakthrough event of 17 May 1215 AD, when Fitzwalter stormed the City of London leading the “Army of God”, in the name of the Templar Order. Since the Templars already enjoyed wide popular and political support in London, the King’s soldiers essentially opened the gates to the city and let them in without much resistance other than some attempts from the Tower of London. 
Less than one month later on 15 June 1215 AD, the Knights Templar obtained King John’s seal accepting and ratifying the Magna Carta at Runnymede.
Even after its first enactment, the Magna Carta was repeatedly resisted by King John, and the Church also rolled back some of its provisions several times, as a compromise to increase its own influence over the King. Because of this, as well as disruptions from a small civil war against the Nobles, the Magna Carta needed to be reissued and reasserted several times. This was accomplished primarily by the perseverance and backing of the Templar House of Anjou.
King Henry III (1207-1272 AD) was the heir of the Royal House of Anjou, a major Knights Templar nobility family which is virtually an institution of the Templar Order. When Henry III was 9 years old, the Angevins appointed William Marshall as his protector. The Marshall Protectorate repeatedly reissued the Magna Carta from 1216 to 1225 AD, finally installing it as the basis for all future government of England. 
William Marshall is revered by the modern English legal profession as “one of the central figures” of the Magna Carta, and “one of the ultimate saviours of the Great Charter”. He was hailed by the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1219 AD as “the greatest Knight that ever lived.”
One of the effigies of the most famous Knights Templar, which lay in Temple Church, is that of William Marshall. In the 1215 AD charter, his name is listed first among the non-clergy men noted as advising the King. When he re-issued the Magna Carta in 1216 AD and 1217 AD to ensure its survival, he placed his own seal in Temple Church itself, where he is buried, and where his effigy still remains over 800 years later. 
In 1297 AD, King Edward I (of the Templar House of Anjou) enacted Confirmatio Cartarum (Confirmation of Charters), reaffirming the Magna Carta. In 1300 AD he enacted the supplemental Articuli Super Cartas (Articles Upon the Charters), consisting of 20 additional Articles providing for stronger and more effective enforcement of the Magna Carta. 
Under mounting pressure from King Philip IV of France, who sought to expand his abusive practices of increasingly aggressive exercise of power, Pope Clement V annulled Confirmatio Cartarum in 1305 AD . While the Magna Carta technically remained in force, that action politically weakened and undermined practical enforcement of its Rule of Law provisions which would limit the King’s ambitions.
These historical facts provide a revealing context, exposing that the Magna Carta – which was promoted, established and maintained by the Knights Templar – was a major factor leading to the persecution of the Templar Order in 1307 AD, by King Philip IV of France:
The Templar-backed reaffirmation of Magna Carta in 1297 AD, and issuance of new articles for its enforcement in 1300 AD, triggered a backlash pushed by the power-hungry French secular King in 1305 AD, blackmailing the Pope to annul the enforcement articles. Within only a short two years thereafter, the King further coerced and abused the French Inquisition to persecute the Knights Templar with a full onslaught.
(The 2011 movie “Ironclad” compellingly portrayed the importance of Magna Carta as a central mission of the Templar Order, and accurately expressed the level of dedication and sacrifice made by the Knights Templar, in their key role as the “Law Givers” fighting to establish the Rule of Law.)
Magna Carta for the Rule of Law and Human Rights
Under the regency of King Henry III backed by Templar protection, the Magna Carta was formally entered into the body of statutory law of England, as of 1225 AD. This made the charter a core part of the most basic principles of jurisprudence, deeply embedded in the English Common Law, which has been the cornerstone of most national legal systems throughout Europe and most of the world. In fact, American colonial Courts considered Magna Carta to be the chief embodiment of Common Law in and of itself. 
Foundation of Rule of Law – The Magna Carta was the first codified statute establishing that even the King is bound to observe the laws, prohibiting any claim to absolute rule by the monarchy. It was the first enactment of the principle of sovereignty of the Rule of Law itself, such that no ruler and no other government official can hold oneself above the law.
Foundation of Civil Rights – The Magna Carta was the first charter in history to mandate specific guarantees of Civil Rights and common privileges, as well as protections of Freedom of Religion. This effectively set the legal precedent for a Bill of Rights to be enacted in all countries. This in turn laid the foundations of the principle of constitutional law internationally, as the statutory recognition of all Civil Rights, as God-given “natural rights” in Common Law.
Foundation of Human Rights – Many principles derived from the original provisions of the Magna Carta have been codified into the modern framework of conventions on Human Rights, which comprise the fundamental body of international law which is binding upon all countries. The modern Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 is based upon 18th century models for Bills of Rights, which were derived from the core principles of the Magna Carta.
Foundation of Parliamentary Democracy – The subsequent implementation of the Magna Carta also greatly influenced the development of political representation by a Parliament. Thus, the charter is also attributed with being the primary foundation of Democracy itself, upon the basis of individual liberties against arbitrary abuses of authority.
One major predecessor to the traditional institution of representative Parliament, as an early medieval form of democracy, is the Grand Mastery of the Knights Templar, since the foundation of the Order of the Temple of Solomon in 1118 AD:
As evidenced by the Temple Rule of 1129 AD, the very concept of the Grand Mastery is that governance is not left to the Grand Master alone, but is balanced by a Council of Nobles, who in turn represent the general population of all Knights and Dames of the Order (Rules 206-207) . The Grand Mastery has always been based upon Arthurian “Round Table” principles (Rules 18, 34, 46, 393, 412) , where all members are ensured full and equal participation in governance by parliamentary representation.
The Templar Order itself was actually the “High Court” and “Royal Council” of the Kingdom of Jerusalem by ca. 1148 AD   , thus serving as its Parliament, carrying even the Crown Regency authority to establish Royal Succession . This is the major precedent of customary law which was later adopted by the United Kingdom ca. 1701 AD to become a constitutional monarchy, considered a modern Democracy.
Foundation of Codified Public Law – The Magna Carta also solidified the principles of codified Public Law, by which Civil Rights and Justice require that the general public have notice and transparent access to clear rules of law, as a protection against arbitrary abuses of power.
The Temple Rule of 1129 AD itself is one early precedent for the practice of codified Public Law, as a medieval form of the Rule of Law subject to the doctrines of Common Law: It is an earlier landmark charter, demonstrating the enactment of a communal law by democratic consultation of a representative council, by which publicly disclosed rules of law serve to implement practices of Civil Rights and Justice under Common Law.
Foundation of Modern Constitutional Rights – The most famous provision of the Magna Carta is “Article 29” of the 1297 AD version (originally “Clause 39” of the 1215 AD version), which established the most fundamental doctrines in jurisprudence of the right to private property, the right to a trial without delay (the basis for habeas corpus), the right to trial by one’s peers (the basis for a jury trial), and thus the absolute right of all citizens to due process of law, free from arbitrary interference by the government.
This clause required that: “No free man shall be arrested or imprisoned, or dispossessed of his Freehold [property], or Liberties… or in any other way destroyed… nor [to] condemn him, except by the lawful judgment of his Peers, or by the law of the land.”
The same clause also provides: “We will sell to no man, we will not deny or [delay] to any man, either Justice or Right.” This prohibits charging or accepting money for any favourable judgment (i.e. bribery or burdensome litigation fees), prevents lawsuits and motions from being arbitrarily dismissed on technicalities, and excludes stalling or delay tactics by defendants or the state.
The original “Clause 61” (of the 1215 AD version) created a Council of 25 Nobles who could overrule the King if he ever defied the rights in the charter, and could even seize his castles and property if they deemed necessary. This and many other provisions were not preserved in later versions. Nonetheless, this clause did establish the historical basis and legal precedent for the concept of “impeachment” of a Head of State by a Parliament.
The Lord Judge of Inner Temple (Inn of Court) in London summarized: “Through [the Magna Carta], the Common Law has penetrated the world. The ideas derived from it have underpinned all the great declarations of human rights. It is a universal document, continuing to have universal impact.” Most importantly, it established “that the King himself was subject to the law, and that if he failed to abide by that understanding, he was not entitled to claim an obligation of loyalty. … To this day, all our rulers are subject to the law.” 
The Power of Fundamental Principles – There are many modern theories of intricate legal complexities attributed to “Common Law”, based upon evidence of secret practices of political corruption in the legal system internationally. (Many such theories are probably true, as most “conspiracy theories” are increasingly proven to be conspiracy facts.)
However, Jesus taught that such confusion comes from “the Devil… a liar, and the father of [lies]” (John 8:44), and the Apostles reminded us that “God is not the author of confusion” (I Corinthians 14:33), but rather God gives “understanding, that we may know [what] is true” (I John 5:20).
Common Law is really the formal recognition of God-given rights and obligations, often called “Natural Law”, which is essentially basic concepts of fairness, otherwise known plainly as “common sense”. Therefore, any confusing complexities of secret practices, manipulating or obstructing public access to Justice in Public Law, are not of God, and do not belong to the legitimate practice of Common Law jurisprudence.
The true Common Law of the Templar Magna Carta tradition is firmly grounded in fundamental principles of right and wrong, fairness and Justice, and driven by underlying and overriding protections against abuse of power. Thus any secret complexities or petty technicalities which could artificially tip the scales of Justice are categorically excluded.
This is the power of fundamental principles, that in all simplicity of natural Truth, they have the penetrating ability to cut through all confusion and distractions, to reveal a universal balance, which satisfies the basic human conception of the common understanding of Justice.
A famous metaphor for this comes from Victorian historians of ancient rules of nobiliary and chivalric institutions, describing complexities of the courtly practice of tying “cravat” neck-scarves, in particular the infamously difficult “Gordion knot”:
“Alexander the Great, irritated at being unable to comprehend the theory of its composition, and determined not to be foiled, adopted the shortest and easier method of solving the question [problem] – that of cutting it with his sword.” 
This historical anecdote is the origin of the colloquial expression “cutting the Gordion knot”, meaning to cut through distractions, to simplify an overcomplicated situation, and achieve a direct common sense result.
This is the authentic nature of the real Common Law of the Templar Magna Carta, that fundamental principles, of clear and balanced doctrines of law, directly and swiftly “cut the Gordion knot” to deliver effective Justice.
Magna Carta as a Living Mission in Modern Times
The establishment and promotion of the Magna Carta was a priority project of the medieval Knights Templar, and an official mission of the Order of the Temple of Solomon. Therefore, the preservation and further advancement of constitutional rights, Civil Rights, Human Rights and the Rule of Law which flow from the Magna Carta, continues to be an essential living historical mission of the Templar Order in modern times.
The heritage of this primary mission of the Templar Order, as a pillar of its core traditions, mandates that Templars must maintain a dedicated focus on defending the Rule of Law and rights in international law in the modern era. Faithful to this tradition, the key emphasis must be on guarding the basic rights and fundamental freedoms of humanity against the arbitrary abuse of power by modern governments and corrupt officials.
Historical Need to Enforce Rights – It is highly significant that in the 13th century, the Templar-led Magna Carta campaign to establish the first Civil Rights and principles of constitutional law arose by necessity, in response to increasing abuses of authority by the monarchy.
During those times, abuses against rights were driven by the need to pay for failed foreign wars, as a result of pursuing a policy of aggressive imperialism. This led to confiscation of property and denial of rights, in violation of existing laws.
The solution given to the world by the Knights Templar, which improved civil liberties and the welfare of humanity for many following centuries, was the Magna Carta and its resulting Human Rights under a meaningful Rule of Law.
Modern Need the Same as Before – Modern times (from 20th to early 21st century) have also witnessed relentless and escalating military aggression (both overt and covert by proxy mercenaries), promoted by Globalist political factions manipulating dominant countries, in flagrant violation of international law.
As a direct result, the modern governments which claim to represent “democracy” have also been severely weakened by their own failed foreign wars, as a consequence of pursuing Globalist policies of neo-imperialism and neo-colonialism, as a Socialist form of neo-feudalism. This has also led to escalating abuses of authority, deprivation of liberties and property without due process of law, and generally rampant violations of rights.
Therefore, humanity now faces precisely the same problem in the modern era, and for the same reasons, as the Knights Templar faced under medieval monarchs. In modern times, exactly the same problem requires to reassert the same effective solution. The original and restored Templar Order is now needed once again, to defend, restore, promote and enforce all international law, to reclaim Human Rights and the Rule of Law itself for all of humanity.
Chivalry by and for The People – The Temple Rule gives all Templars a mandate to overcome “the isolation of their own wills” (Rule 1), through “Holy service” manifesting their collective will (Rule 39), “[not] according to one’s own will, but according to the commands” of the principles of Chivalry (Rule 41), as the Templar “way of life” (Rule 274).
This is a core principle that while the Templar Order is essentially one of independent “leaders, not followers”, all Templars are individuals united in Chivalry, combining the strength of their separate wills, channeling their individual wills into a common cause, for collective impact for The People against anti-humanitarian agendas.
Accordingly, while only some members of the Order may have the highly specialized legal skills needed for Magna Carta related missions, all Templars contribute indirectly through supporting efforts, and thus all share in the collective accomplishments of restoring and upholding the Rule of Law.
This principle of collective Chivalry is best expressed by the bell on the Honey Fitz yacht of the American President John F. Kennedy (“JFK”), who most famously declared the fight against governmental corruption worldwide, which reportedly displayed the inscription (added ca. June 1963): “Where We Go One We Go All”. (The coded acronym for this expression is “WWG1WGA”.)
This saying is believed to come from JFK’s Navy service during World War II as Commander of the Patrol Torpedo boat “PT-109” in 1943. (The bell and inscription was portrayed in the 1996 fiction movie “White Squall”, symbolically depicting the spirit of the Kennedy administration, which JFK called “Camelot” named after the Arthurian knightly legends.)
The Ghost of Templar Legacy Defending Rights
The central domain of the Knights Templar in London was the area of land including Temple Church, Chancery Lane and the Southampton buildings, all owned by the medieval Order of the Temple of Solomon:
During the reign of Henry II (1154-1189 AD), the Templar Order moved headquarters from their “Old Temple” site of the “Old Patent Building” at the Southampton Buildings (at the top of Chancery Lane at High Holborn) to their “New Temple” site of Temple Church (at the bottom of Chancery Lane at Fleet Street). Chancery Lane itself was created by the Knights Templar as a central access road for their complex of buildings in this special area.  
From the 13th century, this “Temple” domain was already heavily populated by prominent lawyers, who lived and worked there as legal advisors to the Commanders of the Templar Order. The Knights Templar were famously revered as the “Law Givers”, having established the Magna Carta of Common Law rights and the Rule of Law in 1215 AD, and ensured its permanent constitutional role within the legal system in 1225 AD.
The Inns of Court called Middle Temple and Inner Temple are both located surrounding the shared courtyard of Temple Church, at the bottom of Chancery Lane (Fleet Street), diagonally across the street from the Royal Courts of Justice.
Those sites which are the remnants of the original Knights Templar, who used those sites exclusively for genuine knightly Quests, dedicated to inherently good and Holy causes such as the Magna Carta defending the Rule of Law, continue to be used as power centers for good to this day.
Temple Church, the most famous 2nd Commandery of the original Knights Templar (featured in the 2006 movie “The Da Vinci Code”), is located at the bottom of Chancery Lane behind Fleet Street. It continues to be operated as a proper ecclesiastical Church, dedicated to genuine spiritual purposes.
Analysis of the Chancery Lane area indicates that the spirit of the original Knights Templar does maintain its esoteric influence over their former domain, working within the hearts and minds of traditional Barristers (top-level lawyers) to insist upon upholding the Rule of Law for the people:
Inner Temple and Middle Temple Inns are both adjacent to the courtyard of Temple Church itself. Closest to the consecrated Holy Temple of the original Knights Templar infused with their symbols, it is these two Inns of Court which have a historically proven track-record of maintaining the most defiant anti-establishment resistance in defense of Civil Rights.
Spirit of Resistance to Corruption – The famous Gunpowder Plot of Guy Fawkes, who attempted to blow up the Parliament in session, is directly linked to Barristers from both Inner Temple and Middle Temple Inns of Court:
The brothers Thomas and Robert Winter, who were admitted to Middle Temple in 1590 AD, were both tried alongside Guy Fawkes as co-conspirators and executed with him. Francis Tresham, a member of Inner Temple, was a key conspirator in the Guy Fawkes plot, whose message warning his brother-in-law not to attend Parliament on that day led to discovery of the plot. Tresham was exposed by Guy Fawkes under torture, and he died in prison in the Tower of London.
The famous mask is a stylized depiction of Guy Fawkes, traditionally used for his effigy, which as propaganda was burned every year during the government-ordered “holiday” of Guy Fawkes Night. During the early decades of observing Guy Fawkes Night, the annual bonfire was burned at the Temple Gate (on Fleet Street) as the entrance to both Inner and Middle Temple Inns of Court, demonstrating their association with the gunpowder plot as centers of dissention. 
Despite its initial use as state propaganda, the Guy Fawkes mask was really always perceived by the people as a symbol of protest against government disregarding its limitations of authority as granted by and for the people.
With the 2006 movie “V for Vendetta”, Guy Fawkes became a renewed symbol for demanding Civil Rights against systemic corrupt abuses of power by government. His mask thus came to be used as a trademark by the anti-globalist hacker activist group called “Anonymous”, as well as the “Occupy Wall Street” and other worldwide anti-agenda protest movements.
Evidencing a coded folk tradition of Guy Fawkes as a symbol of protest against abuse of power, the Guy Fawkes commemorative poem is:
“Remember, remember, the 5th of November, the gunpowder treason and plot. I can think of no reason why the gunpowder treason should ever be forgot.”
Within the positive libertarian factions of the British Inns of Court, and in the halls of Inner Temple Inn, whose members include major Civil Rights leaders such as Mohandas Ghandi and Nelson Mandela, the resistance spirit of the ongoing fight for fundamental Human Rights will also “never be forgot”.
Spirit of Political Independence – The ethereal call of the “ghost of the Knights Templar” has continued to be an irresistible influence and relentless inspiration to the Inns of Court adjacent to the Order’s former Commandery:
Both the Inner Temple and Middle Temple Inns faithfully preserved and protected Temple Church throughout the 17th century, ensuring it was attended by sufficient clergy. The Treasurer of Inner Temple in 1898 AD explained that both Inns regarded Temple Church as a cultural center and focal point of the moral aspirations of their societies, “the one object for whose care and preservation all were concerned, upon which all looked with love and veneration”. This inspired the deeply ingrained sense of unity, by which they joined in resistance against interference by the monarchy, to promote their independence. 
According to historians of the Inns of Court, “in the later 17th century… Chancery Lane became a focus for those attracted by political intrigue and dissent”, and a center for anti-establishment political dissidents to develop “systemized political organization”. 
The heritage and legacy of the Knights Templar has thus continued to serve as a motivating inspiration to a distinct faction of the highest ranking British lawyers, who remain dedicated to civil liberties, opposing various anti-humanitarian agendas of the modern era.
Spirit of Common Quests for Liberty – Far beyond the traditional Inns of Court which developed from Old London of the Templar Order, the Templar spirit of Chivalry by and for the people continues to inspire worldwide populist movements for political independence and civil liberties:
For the worst forms of Globalist corruption violating rights of international law across borders, modern operations for restoring the Rule of Law tend to require international cooperation of the Independent Judiciary profession with a Military Intelligence alliance, involving “above top secret” security clearances, considered higher than the level of presidential administrations of countries.
One of the highest and rarest security clearances in the United States, considered “above top secret” and related to Military Intelligence (higher than national security agencies), is called “Q Clearance”. Many insiders believe that “Q” is symbolically named for the knightly “Quest”, representing the Code of Chivalry which has been the backbone of the traditional Code of Honour of military professionals worldwide since the beginning of recorded human history.
With the 2016 Brexit referendum vote, from 2017 “Q” became a symbol for the anti-globalist anti-propaganda Truth Movement of patriots and researchers. Supported by Military Intelligence veterans around the world, the movement promotes what it calls “The Great Awakening” of the people to reclaim their civil liberties.
The “Q” movement declares its goals as upholding Human Rights (including the right to self-governance of peoples through national sovereignty), and demanding restoration of the Rule of Law and Justice against governmental corruption.
Indicating that the populist movement at least subconsciously seeks and expresses the principle of collective Chivalry, influenced by the echoes of the Templar spirit of Magna Carta, the “Q” movement adopted the modern chivalric motto attributed to President Kennedy: “Where We Go One We Go All”.
Academic Source References
 Paul Brand, Henry II and the Creation of the English Common Law, in Christopher Harper-Bill & Nicholas Vincent, Henry II: New Interpretations, Woodbridge UK, Boydell Press (2007), p.216.
 Malcolm Barber & Keith Bate, The Templars: Selected Sources, Manchester University Press (2002), pp.5-6.
 M. Chibnall, The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1978), Volume 6, pp.308-311.
 Hugh Chisholm, “Fitzwalter, Robert” in Encyclopedia Britannica (1911), 11th Edition, Cambridge University Press, p.449.
 T.F. Tout, “Fitzwalter, Robert” in Leslie Stephen, Dictionary of National Biography (1889), London, Smith Elder & Co., p.226.
 Gabriel Ronay, The Tartar Khan’s Englishman, London, Cassel (1978), pp.38-40.
 Lord Judge Master of the Temple, The Greatest Knight, in The Inner Temple Yearbook: 2013-2014, Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, pp.14-15.
 T.F. Tout, “Fitzwalter, Robert” in Leslie Stephen, Dictionary of National Biography (1889), London, Smith Elder & Co., p.226.
 Danny Danziger & John Gillingham, 1215: The Year of Magna Carta, Hodder & Stoughton (2003), p.271.
 Lord Judge Master of the Temple, The Greatest Knight, in The Inner Temple Yearbook: 2013-2014, Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, pp.12-15.
 William B. Robinson & Ronald H. Fritze, Historical Dictionary of Late Medieval England: 1272-1485, Greenwood Press (2002), “Articuli Super Cartas” at pp.34-35.
 Sophia Menache, Clement V, Cambridge University Press (2002), p.253.
 H.D. Hazeltine, “The Influence of Magna Carta on American Constitutional Development in Malden”, in Henry Elliot, Magna Carta Commemoration Essays (1917), p.194.
 Henri de Curzon, La Règle du Temple, La Société de L’Histoire de France, Paris (1886), in Librairie Renouard: The “Grand Commander shall summon the majority of worthy Knights [and Dames]… who are officers and the most prominent… [as] thirteen electors” (Rules 206-207).
 Henri de Curzon, La Règle du Temple, La Société de L’Histoire de France, Paris (1886), in Librairie Renouard: “We command everyone to have the same” (Rule 18); “No person shall be elevated among you” (Rule 34); It is forbidden “to promote oneself gradually” (Rule 46); At Council meetings members take turns speaking, going around the tables (Rules 393, 412).
 M. Chibnall, The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1978), Volume 6, pp.308-311; The High Court included the co-founding Templar Patron Count Fulk d’Anjou.
 High Court of Jerusalem, Decrees of the Council of Acre, Palmarea (24 June 1148); Attended by the Knights Templar, and Angevin Templar Nobility; Archbishop William II of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea (12th century), translated in: E.A. Babock & A.C. Crey, Columbia University Press (1943); The High Court in 1148 AD included the 2nd Templar Grand Master Robert de Craon, “many others” of the Knights Templar, and the Angevin King Louis VII of France.
 Malcolm Barber & Keith Bate, The Templars: Selected Sources, Manchester University Press (2002), p.5; “All masters” of the Templar Grand Mastery “were leading political and military figures in the Kingdom of Jerusalem”.
 The Vatican, The Catholic Encyclopedia (1912), The Encyclopedia Press, New York (1913), Volume 14, “Templars, Knights”, Part 2, “Their Marvellous Growth”, pp.493-494; The Templar Order exercised “the right to direct the… government of the Kingdom of Jerusalem”.
 Lord Judge Master of the Temple, The Greatest Knight, in The Inner Temple Yearbook: 2013-2014, Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, p.14.
 H. Le Blanc, Esq., The Art of Tying the Cravat: A Pocket Manual, Effingham Wilson, Cornhill, Ingrey & Madeley, The Strand, London (1828), “Lesson II: Noeud Gordien”, pp.30-31.
 John Baker, Inner Temple History, Inner Temple (2009), Introduction, Part 1.
 James Campbell, The Map of Early Modern London: Chancery Lane, University of Victoria (2009).
 F.A. Inderwick, Q.C., A Calendar of the Inner Temple Records, Volume II, Chiswick Press, Chancery Lane, London (1898), Introduction: xii.
 F.A. Inderwick, Q.C., A Calendar of the Inner Temple Records, Volume II, Chiswick Press, Chancery Lane, London (1898), Introduction, cxxx.
 Celia Pilkington, Saints and Rebels, in The Inner Temple Yearbook: 2013-2014, Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, p.23.